A chronology of key events in Somalia

1960
Somalia gains independence

British and Italian parts of Somalia become independent, merge and form the United Republic of Somalia; Aden Abdullah Osman Daar elected president.

1967
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke is elected

Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke beats Aden Abdullah Osman Daar in elections for president.

1969
President Sharmarke assisination followed by Coup

Muhammad Siad Barre assumes power in coup after Shermarke is assassinated.In the following year, Barre declares Somalia a socialist state and nationalises most of the economy.

1974
Somalia joins the Arab League
1977
Ogaden War

Somalia invades the Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia. In the following year, Somali forces pushed out of Ogaden with the help of Soviet advisers and Cuban troops. Barre expels Soviet advisers and gains support of United States.

1988
Peace accord with Ethiopia
1990
SNM, USC and SPM form alliance

Opposition groups form alliance to oust Siad Barre

1991
Civil war

following the removal of Siad Bare,Somalia descended into a deadly civil war. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed.

1992
US Invasion

US Marines land near Mogadishu ahead of a UN peacekeeping force sent to restore order and safeguard relief supplies.

1993
Black Hawk Down

US Army Rangers are killed when Somali militias shoot down two US helicopters in Mogadishu and a battle ensues. Hundreds of Somalis die.

1995
UN Peacekeepers Withdrawal

UN peacekeepers leave after the end of the US mission having failed to achieve their mission.

1996
Death of Aideed

Warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed dies of wounds and is succeeded by his son – Hussein

1997
Cairo Peace Conference / Cairo Declaration

A reconciliation meeting in Cairo, Egypt in December 1997 led to the signing of the ‘Cairo Declaration’.

1998
Puntland Autunomy

Puntland region declares autonomy.

2000
Somali Peace Conference in Arta

Arta conference, also referred to us Somali National Peace Conference, was held in Djibouti from 20th April to 5th May 2000 and included intellectuals, clan and religious leaders and members of the business community. The conference led to the election of Abdulkassim Salat Hassan as a president of Somalia.